|Figure of a luohan
|Moulded earthenware with glaze|
|Centimetres: 126.5 (height), 101 (width), 91 (depth)|
|11th century AD|
|Liao - Jin dynasty|
|Area of Origin: Reportedly from Yi Xian, Hebei province, China|
|Area of Use: Yi Xian, reportedly; Hebei, reportedly; China; Asia|
|Matthews Family Court of Chinese Sculpture|
|Gift of Mrs. H.D. Warren|
Description: A Luohan (Arhat in Sanskrit) is a holy monk striving to attain Buddhahood through meditation. In Chinese temples, Luohans are usually found in groups of 16 or 18. This particular clay sculpture comes from a famous group discovered in a cave near Yixian in 1912. At least seven of this group are now kept in various museums in Europe and North America.
Publications: Jin Shen (2003), "Tan Hebei Yixin Bafowa Liaodai Sancaitao luohan", Wenwu chunqiu, 2003, no. 2, pp. 61-63:fig. 1.
Smithies, Richard (2001), "A Luohan from Yizhou in the University of Pennsylvania Museum", Orientations 32, no.2, pp. 51-56: fig. 8.
Murowchick, Robert E., editor (1994), China: Ancient Culture, Modern Land, Cradles of Civilization series, Weldon Russell, North Sydney, Australia, p. 130.
Far Eastern Department, Royal Ontario Museum (1992), Homage to Heaven, Homage to Earth: Chinese Treasures of the Royal Ontario Museum, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pl. 101.
Smithies, Richard (1984), "The Search for the Lohans of I-Chou (Yixian)", Oriental Art 30, no. 3, pp. 260-274: fig. 7.
Dohrenwend, Dorie (1979), "Far Eastern Department: Arts of Buddhist Asia", Arts of Asia 9, no. 2, pp. 62-76: fig. 9.
Staff of the Far Eastern Department (1972), Chinese Art in the Royal Ontario Museum, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, no. 111.
Wolf, Marion (1969), "The Lohans from I-chou," Oriental Art 15, no. 1, pp. 51-57: fig. 6.
Trubner, Henry (1968), Royal Ontario Museum: The Far Eastern Collection, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, pl. 76.
Heinrich, Theodore Allen (1963), Art Treasures in the Royal Ontario Museum, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, p. 55.